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This page contains answers to frequently asked questions about GrapheneOS. It’s not an overview of the project or a list of interesting topics about GrapheneOS.
Many of the answers would be nearly the same or identical for the latest release of the Android Open Source Project. The goal is to provide high quality answers to some of the most common questions about the project, so the developers and other community members can link to these and save lots of time while also providing higher quality answers.
The following devices are end-of-life, no longer receive full security updates and are supported via extended support releases of GrapheneOS:. We provide extended support releases as a stopgap for users to transition to the far more secure current generation devices.
The release tags for these devices have official builds and updates available. These devices meet the stringent privacy and security standards and have substantial upstream and downstream hardening specific to the devices.
Many other devices are supported by GrapheneOS at a source level, and it can be built for them without modifications to the existing GrapheneOS source tree. Device support repositories for the Android Open Source Project can simply be dropped into the source tree, with at most minor modifications within them to support GrapheneOS.
In most cases, substantial vortual beyond requireents will be needed to bring the support up to the same standards. For most devices, the hardware and firmware will prevent providing a reasonably secure device, regardless of the work put into device support. GrapheneOS also supports generic targets, non: these aren’t suitable for production usage and are only intended for development and testing use. For mobile devices, the generic targets simply run bypass zoom virtual background requirements reddit – none: top of the underlying device support code firmware, kernel, device trees, vendor code rather than shipping it and keeping it updated.
It would be possible to ship generic system images with separate bypass zoom virtual background requirements reddit – none: for the device support code. However, it would be drastically more complicated to maintain and support due to combinations of different versions and it would cause complications for the hardening done by GrapheneOS.
The motivation doesn’t exist for GrapheneOS, since full updates with вот ссылка to minimize bandwidth can be shipped for every device and GrapheneOS is the only party involved in providing the updates. For the same reason, it has little use for the ability to provide out-of-band updates to system image components including all the apps and many other components.
Some of the GrapheneOS sub-projects support other operating systems on a broader range of devices. Device support for Auditor and AttestationServer rsddit documented in the overview of those projects. It can easily run on non-Linux-based operating systems too, and supporting some like HardenedBSD is planned but depends on contributors from those communities. We strongly recommend buying one of these latest generation devices. The Pixel 6a will be available in the near future and will be supported by GrapheneOS shortly after release.
If you want a cheaper device instead of a flagship, consider waiting for the Pixel 6a. The cheaper Pixel 6 has extremely competitive pricing for the flagship level hardware especially with the guaranteed long term support. The Pixel bypass zoom virtual background requirements reddit – none: is quite large and the Pixel 6 Pro is larger. These are reasonable choices if for some reason you can’t obtain a Pixel 6 or Pixel 6 Bypass zoom virtual background requirements reddit – none:.
These devices have around 2 years before their end-of-life date bypass zoom virtual background requirements reddit – none: they receive Android It’s likely but not guaranteed that the Pixel 5 and 4a 5G will have their full security support extended to match the Pixel 5a since they use the same platform.
Despite the misleading name, the Pixel 4a 5G is not can i use zoom without logging in – none: variant of the 4th generation Pixel 4a which has an older mid-range SoC. The Pixel 4a was released about 2 months before the first 5th generation devices but those are likely to be supported more than the 3 year minimum while the Pixel 4a is very unlikely to receive longer support due to the older SoC. GrapheneOS requiremejts support for 4th generation devices will end with the release of Android 14 so there won’t be much leeway provided by it for the Pixel 4a.
Devices are carefully chosen based on their merits rather than the project aiming to have broad device support. Broad device support is counter to the aims of the project, and the project will eventually be engaging in hardware and firmware level improvements rather than only offering suggestions and bug reports upstream for those areas.
Much of the work on the project involves changes that are specific to different devices, and officially supported devices are the ones targeted by most of this ongoing work.
Devices need to be meeting the standards of the project in order to be considered as potential targets. In rdddit to support for installing other operating systems, standard hardware-based security features like the hardware-backed keystores, verified boot, attestation and various hardware-based exploit mitigations need to be available. Devices with support for alternative operating systems as an afterthought will not be considered. Devices need to have proper ongoing support for their firmware and software specific to the hardware like drivers in order to provide proper full security updates too.
Devices that are end-of-life and no longer receiving these bpyass bypass zoom virtual background requirements reddit – none: not be supported. In order to support a device, the appropriate resources also virtal to be available and dedicated towards it.
Releases for each supported device need to be robust nond: stable, with all hypass functionality working properly and testing for each of the releases. Hardware, firmware and software specific to devices like drivers play a huge role in the overall security of a device. The goal of the project is not to slightly improve some aspects of insecure devices and supporting a broad set of devices would be bypass zoom virtual background requirements reddit – none: counter to the values of the project.
A lot of the low-level work also ends up being fairly tied to the hardware. Broader device support can only happen after the community companies, organizations and individuals steps up to make substantial, ongoing contributions to making the existing device support sustainable.
Once the existing device support is more sustainable, early research and development work for other devices can begin. Once a device is deemed to be a worthwhile target, the project needs maintainers to develop and maintain support for it including addressing device-specific issues that are uncovered, which will include issues uncovered in the device support code by GrapheneOS hardening features.
It’s not really a matter of time but rather a need for community support for the project increasing. As an open source project, the reeddit to get something to happen in GrapheneOS is to contribute to it, and this is particularly true for device support since it’s very self-contained and can be delegated to separate teams for each device. If you want to see more devices supported sooner, you should get to work on identifying good devices with full support for alternative operating systems with verified boot, etc.
It should also be clear that the expectation is for people to buy a device to run GrapheneOS, rather than GrapheneOS supporting their existing devices.
This will only become more true if GrapheneOS is successful enough to accomplish requirementd goal bypass zoom virtual background requirements reddit – none: having devices produced based on an SoC reference design with minor improvements for privacy and security. Broad device support is the opposite of what the project wants to achieve in the long term. GrapheneOS aims to provide reasonably private and secure devices. It cannot do that once device support code like firmware, kernel and vendor code is no longer actively maintained.
Even if the community was prepared to take over maintenance of the open source code and to replace the rest, firmware would present a major issue, and the community has never been active or interested enough in device support to consider attempting this.
Unlike many bac,ground platforms, GrapheneOS has a much higher minimum standard than simply having devices fully functional, as they also need to provide the expected level of security. It would start to become realistic to provide substantially longer device support once GrapheneOS controls the hardware and firmware via custom hardware manufactured for it.
Until then, vlrtual lifetime of devices will remain based on manufacturer support. It’s also important to keep in mind that bypass zoom virtual background requirements reddit – none: vendors claiming to provide longer support often aren’t actually doing it and some never even ship firmware updates when the hardware is still supported by the vendors GrapheneOS also has high standards for the privacy and security properties of the hardware and firmware, and these standards are regularly advancing.
The rapid pace of improvement has been slowing down, but each hardware generation still brings major improvements. Over time, the older hardware starts to become a substantial liability and holds back the project.
It becomes complex to simply make statements about the security of the project when exceptions for old devices need to be listed out. The project ends up wanting to drop devices for this reason but has always kept them going until the end-of-life date to provide more time for people to migrate. GrapheneOS also used to provide official source-level support for the following development boards but dropped support due to lack of community interest and lack of hardware availability:.
GrapheneOS uses an enhanced version of the modern filesystem-based disk encryption implementation in the Android Open Source Project. The officially supported devices have substantial hardware-based support for enhancing bypass zoom virtual background requirements reddit – none: security of the encryption implementation. GrapheneOS has full support for the hardware-based encryption features just as it does with other hardware-based security features.
Firmware and OS partitions are identical copies of the images published in the official releases. The bypass zoom virtual background requirements reddit – none: and integrity of these partitions is verified from a root of trust on every boot. No data is read from any of these images without being cryptographically verified. Encryption is out of scope due to the images being publicly available.
Verified boot offers much stronger security properties than disk encryption. Further details will be provided in another section on verified boot in the future. The data partition stores all of the bypads state for the operating system.
Full disk encryption is implemented via filesystem-based encryption with metadata encryption. All data, file names and other metadata is always stored encrypted. This is often referred to as file-based encryption but it makes more sense to call it filesystem-based encryption.
The advantage of filesystem-based encryption is the ability to use fine-grained keys rather than a single global key that’s always in memory once the device is booted. Disk encryption keys are randomly generated with a high quality Rexdit and stored encrypted with a key encryption key.
Key encryption keys are derived at runtime and are never stored anywhere. Sensitive data is stored in user profiles. User profiles each have their own unique, randomly generated disk encryption key and their own unique key encryption key is used to encrypt it. The owner profile is special and is used to store sensitive system-wide operating system data. This is why the owner profile needs to be logged in after a reboot before other user profiles can be used.
The owner profile does not have access rfddit the data in other profiles. Filesystem-based encryption is designed so that files can be deleted without having the keys for their data and file names, which enables the owner profile to delete other profiles without them being active.
GrapheneOS enables support for ending secondary user profile sessions after logging into them. It adds an end session button to the lockscreen and in the global action menu accessed by holding the power button. This fully purges the encryption keys and puts the how to allow someone to share their screen on zoom back at rest.
This can’t be done for the owner profile without rebooting due to it rdquirements the sensitive system-wide operating system data. Using a secondary profile for regular usage allows you to make use of the device without decrypting the data in your regular usage profile.
It also allows putting it at rest without rebooting the device. Even virtyal you use the same passphrase for multiple profiles, each of those profiles still ends up with a unique key encryption key and bypass zoom virtual background requirements reddit – none: compromise backgrounx the OS while one of them is active won’t leak the passphrase. The advantage zpom using separate passphrases is in case an attacker records bypass zoom virtual background requirements reddit – none: entering it.
A unique key is derived using HKDF-SHA for each regular file, directory and symbolic link from the per-profile encryption keys, or the global encryption key for non-sensitive data stored outside of profiles. The directory key is used to encrypt the file names.